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Energy (FEC) - a complex system of inter-branch extraction and production of fuel and energy (electricity and heat), their transportation, distribution and use. It consists of: 1) the fuel industry - oil, gas, coal, oil shale, peat, 2) electricity. Separately, you can talk about the production infrastructure entities - the main high-voltage lines and pipelines, form a single network. The main criteria for the formation of national policy in the field of energy security, in our opinion, are the following: 1) the level of stocks of fuel in Russia, the quality of their extraction and processing, 2) the priorities of the formation of the fuel balance, 3) technical and technological condition of fixed assets FEC, 4) possibility FEC provide effective demand sufficient amount of energy, 5) rational use of energy consumers, 6) optimal organizational structure of the oil, gas and electricity markets, the allowable degree of monopolization considering economic efficiency and energy security, 7) mechanism raw redistribution between subjects Energy and State, within the fuel and energy sector, funding sources and investments 8) strategic priorities and mechanisms Zeno mation on the fuel and energy in the domestic and foreign markets, 9) non-discriminatory access of domestic economic entities on the international fuel market, and others. Based on the above criteria, we can formulate the main factors threatening the achievement of the necessary conditions for stable operation of the fuel and energy complex, and thus is a factor in reducing the energy, and as a consequence - economic security. The specified list - is the basis for balancing purposes, tools, methods fiscal, monetary, tax, antitrust regulation of the economy in order to achieve the basic parameters of the economic security of the state. In accordance with the Law On Security security - a state of defending the vital interests of the individual, society and state from internal and external threats. security threat - a set of conditions and factors that endanger the vital interests of the individual, society and state. In turn, real and potential threat to the security objects (in our case - the fuel and energy complex) emanating from internal and external sources of danger, determines the content to ensure internal and external security activities [1]. Technical level and condition of the majority of economic entities the FEC does not meet modern requirements of science and technology in the power industry, as well as safety and environmental requirements, in some cases, becomes critical. Fixed assets currently characterized by high wear largely obsolete (especially the quality of hydrocarbons extraction and processing). This is in view of the high capital intensity and investment inertia of the complex creates a huge threat to the energy security of the country. In particular, the depreciation of fixed assets in the power industry today is about 60% [2]. The next problem is closely related to the previous one. It represents a serious threat to investment underfunding of the fuel and energy complex. This leads to inadequate replacement of fixed assets, reduce operational capabilities of equipment, uncompensated disposal facilities. To maintain a safe state of electric power must be replaced annually about 6,000 MW main power generating equipment. Replaced not more than 1000-2000 MW per year [2]. FEC underfunding leads to the threat of the collapse of its construction industry. The consequences of this can not be overcome, even for a decade. Also, the threat of energy security is cross-subsidization - hidden (technology) and explicit (social). Cross-subsidies - is the transfer of costs from one type of energy to another product. In a market economy on the energy market comes more than 39 kinds of energy goods and services. [3] There are more than 10 types of cross subsidizing type [4]: ​​subsidizing condensation electric energy due to the combined energy subsidizing power due to the energy subsidy reliability due to the energy subsidize electric energy by the thermal energy, subsidizing lasting allowance due to the energy subsidies for new customers at the expense of older consumers and others. The causes of cross-subsidies are dated 50-mi years of the 20th century. Its main driving force was a political and ideological purpose: to achieve the ideological and socio-economic power and the world. The same aim pursued state statistics and the economic efficiency of thermal and electrical energy production purposes, where the heat production recorded on CHP efficiency 108.4% (according to A. Bogdanova) [4]. In the transition to a market economy system of cross-subsidization in energetikepo default has been fixed in the regulations. Therefore, to ensure the economic security of the industry and the economy as a whole, it was necessary to eliminate the negative impact of cross-subsidies for activities of market entities. Financial destabilization in the fuel and energy sector due to the growth of defaults on the part of consumers of energy leads to an increase in debt of energy entities in the budgets of all levels and extra-budgetary funds. With an increase in accounts receivable power producers deprived of the possibility to finance the expanded reproduction, resulting in increased likelihood of damage in high depreciation of fixed assets. Reducing filling budget revenues as a result of failure to comply with its obligations enterprises fuel and energy sector is another threat to both energy and economic security of Russia. This in turn leads to an increase in debt for the received energy by consumers financed from the budget. In these conditions the fuel and energy complex are creditors of individual sectors of the economy. The global financial crisis, which reached its peak in 2008, drew a sharper whole range of problems, related to the financial and economic component of ensuring the energy security of Russia, first of all, with the lack of investment resources for the expansion and renewal of the production base: - replacement of reserves in the oil and gas industry and the power industry is rated as critical - in the economy remains high taxes, non-payment, the unfavorable investment climate - the possibility of attracting resources of the stock market (in particular, effective IPOs) for the financing of fuel and energy complex enterprises, especially reforming the electricity, steel is very limited. So, most of the threats to energy security is fundamentally has its financial and economic roots, more often - insufficient volume of investments directed to the industry, inefficient tax regulation mechanisms or pricing (particularly tariff pricing). In addition, undeveloped in the 90s and early 2000s, the financial market limit the use of capital market instruments for investment and risk insurance. As a deterrent portfolio investment was itself the monopoly structure of the industry, which did not allow a wide variety of investors in selecting investment targets and mechanisms for the redistribution of resources attracted from the stock market was opaque and could not fully take into account the needs of each of the power facilities. The new model demonopolized power involves the use of the following methods of state regulation and control [5]: - state regulation and control of activity of subjects, related laws of natural monopolies in the electricity sector, including the regulation of investment activity - state regulation of prices (tariffs) for certain types of services - state antimonopoly regulation and control in the first place, the establishment of uniform on the territory of the Russian Federation, the rules of access to power grids and services for power transmission, - management of state property in the power industry, - licensing of activities in the field of electricity tics - technical regulations, - state supervision over the observance by subjects of the electricity requirements of the federal legislation, including the technical and environmental regulations. In the transition period of electricity reform in the framework of public policy has been provided for the following order of regulation of electricity prices, which was to ensure the social component of economic security. The Russian government in conjunction with the development of the draft federal budget for the next fiscal year are approved for the year limits in electricity tariffs for consumers with the release prices for the population, and it was provided the opportunity to stake out these tariffs for a period of one year, according to categories of consumers, taking into account regional and other features (Fig. 1). Breakdown of tariffs for a period of one year, a breakdown of rates on consumer categories Breakdown of tariffs, taking into account regional and other features limit levels of tariffs (prices) for electric power for the consumers of the Russian Federation Government Tariff in power politics as an instrument of energy security Figure 1 - The mechanism of state regulation of the social component economic security in the field of electric power Ona of the major threats to economic security, exuding nickname which serves electricity are non-payments for delivered energy. Since most of the fundamental problems of the industry at its base have the financial and economic conditions, lack of funding for energy entities exclude the possibility of upgrading, It increases the risk of technical and technological instability of electricity, reducing the rate of industrial growth, social instability in the country. Retail consumers to buy electricity from the marketing companies that acquire it from the producers in the wholesale electricity market (WEM). According to the non-commercial partnership Market Council [6-7], the actual debt in the retail electricity market in 2009 grew by 25.7 billion. Rub., Reaching the beginning of 2010 73.5 billion. Rubles. The total debt of consumers to guaranteeing suppliers (SOEs) reached 123.4 billion. Rubles. Non-payment for energy on the RRE lead to an increase in debt load supply secto