buy a ready business | equipment for business
Energy resources are important for the well-being of any modern state, but most of them are concentrated in a few countries, which entails the conversion of these resources into an important element of international policy in the context of cross-country disparities. States with surplus energy, are able to strengthen their power at the expense of funds received from the sale of hydrocarbons, including for export, as well as the use of political and economic influence on the world stage due to the energy factor. Countries lacking such resource potential will depend on the level of world oil and gas prices. As a result of the conduct of foreign policy and domestic social and economic policy, they have to take into account the threat of embargo-exporting countries. The state of the world oil and gas market is also influenced by the policies of States providing transport corridors for export. This leads to the fact that transit states have an opportunity not only to provide themselves additional budget revenues, but also have an impact on consumers and producers of hydrocarbons. Despite the fact that in today's economy needs mainly are provided by traditional sources, the role of alternative fuels and energy sources increases, and not only for importers, but also for fuel exporters. Part of the reasons for this are the same, and partly - vary dramatically. Consider cause-effect relationships and the technical and economic prerequisites for the introduction of renewable energy sources in the different economies. Prospects for the use of alternative fuel-exporting countries are determined by the following factors: 1) part of the sectors of the economy can be converted to alternative fuels, but at the moment the technology for their production are not effective enough to use them on an industrial scale everywhere. In addition, oil and oil products in the long term will remain a key fuel for transport and other sectors of the economy, 2) it is necessary to step up the introduction of alternative fuels in the economic activities of the countries, a significant part of deposits which is at the final stage of production (as in Russia). This will be a source of satisfaction in domestic fuel and energy demand both from households and from the industry, 3) high specific gravity own alternative energy sources in the fuel mix will increase the level of independence of external policy (which has a high energy component), 4) the need to ensure environmental energy security component 5) in the production of fuels from crops must spend energy strategy to balance with the policy of food security (efficient use of crop area) and others. If we talk about importing, their motivation to promote the use of renewable sources of energy has its own specifics. Historically importers to be more careful in positioning themselves in the global economic and political arena. In the October 1973 Arab oil-exporting countries to protest against the support of Israel, We took the unprecedented decision to impose the oil boycott against a number of countries, sympathizers or collaborators with Israel. This embargo was reflected in the reduction or termination of oil supplies in the countries concerned. As a result, oil production started to decrease by 5% per month, which resulted in a 70% rise in prices. In the next two months, the price of oil has increased by 4 times compared to normal (pre-crisis) levels. Arab exporters boycotted the supply of oil to the United States, Portugal and the Netherlands, Rhodesia and South Africa due to their racist regimes. In the list of sympathizers were also other countries of Western Europe and Japan. Before the threat of the oil embargo Tokyo, Paris and Bonn have made political statements in support of the position of the Arab countries in the Middle East peace process and indirectly condemned Israel's policy. Rising oil prices have changed the entire world economic situation has hit hard in Japan, some European countries and the countries of Asia and Africa, did not have energy resources. Since the mid-1970s-importing countries to ensure its energy security started to give priority to: - energy-saving technologies, - diversifying sources of supply, - strengthening relations with Member States, through appropriate suppliers consistent with the interests of exporters of foreign policy. The latter is primarily manifested in the positions of the EU and Japan, countries in the Middle East and North Africa, as, for example, at the beginning of the 2000s the share of Middle East oil imports of EU countries accounted for 24.6%, Africa - 20%, Eastern Europe (mainly Russia) - 27.5%, Norway - 19.95% [1]. So, during the conciliatory policy in the Arab-Israeli conflict, the EU and Japan have advocated the creation of a Palestinian state, provided (along with the US) financial assistance to the Palestinian National Authority in the development of infrastructure. They condemned and Palestinian terror and Israeli retaliatory military actions, but did not resort to sanctions at the same time. These approaches to the problems of the Middle East to this day characteristic of the importing countries' policies. In this sense, the United States have the greatest freedom of maneuver in the conduct of economic and political lines in the international arena in the energy regions. This is due to the fact that, having sufficient own hydrocarbon reserves, the US for many years, adhere to the strategy of forming a system of partnerships with a number of politically reliable exporting countries. This system is well diversified geographically. Experts predict that by 2040, global energy demand will increase by more than 50% [2]. The conditions laid down by now traditional geopolitical distribution of resources to the fore the problem of investigating other possibilities of power generation: solar, geothermal, tidal, wave energy, wind energy, biomass, small rivers, and ocean energy. Traditionally, the development of the fuel and energy sector there was a pattern: investments were directed to the areas of energy, which provided fast enough economic benefit. Associated social and environmental impacts were considered only as an attendant. Therefore, renewable energy sources (RES) were seen as the future of energy, demand that will arise when the exhaustion of the traditional or in case of negative economic efficiency of hydrocarbon production. The impetus for the mass deployment of alternative energy has become the oil crisis of the 1970s that resulted in the emergence of special government programs. By the volume of energy produced from renewable energy sources Russia is significantly (10-15 years) lags behind many countries as industrialized (US, Germany) and emerging (China, India). At the same time, given the scope of the national fuel and energy complex enough promising: its economic potential is 275 million tons of oil equivalent (toe), and technically attainable - 4.6 billion (tcf)... Geographically, these reserves are distributed across Russian territory more evenly than hydrocarbon reserves, that allows us to solve the problem of self-sufficiency of regions and their energy security. The most expensive today are photovoltaic power plants that use the sun's energy, the least expensive - fuel. The average between the position occupied: hydropower, wind, tidal, geothermal. However, at this stage of history, the higher cost of the technology, it goes the more intense development [3]. In comparison, for the construction of renewable energy consumption is: wind power high power (tens - hundreds of MW) up to $ 1300-1600 / kW solar thermal plants (with flat solar collectors) - US $ 150-170 / kW of solar power plants.. (SES) with photovoltaic cells - 5000-7000 USD / kW. using solar radiation concentration and simultaneous production of electricity and heat - 1000-1200 dollars / kW.. It should be noted that when several large capital investments as compared to thermal power plants, electrical and thermal energy by using renewable energy is cheaper due to lack of fuel costs, which in the traditional thermal power plants reach 60 - 70% as part of operating costs, which determine the cost of [ 4]. Creating solar plants for electricity generation today is still relatively expensive. But solar power industry is improving rapidly, and the cost of construction of these stations has decreased 5 times in the last 15 years. Development of new technologies and in the next 5 - 7 years, is expected to reduce the cost of solar energy even in 2 - 4 times. Then their application will be beneficial across the board. At the moment, solar power effectively used only in remote areas to replace diesel generators with expensive fuel imports. Today, the average capacity of wind electrical - about 4 MW in the coming years should reach 10 MW. In Europe, renewable sources already account for about 30% of capacity. The budget of the Russian economy for 2009 - 2011 years. It is still based on the petrodollar income, despite claims by the Russian Government about the need to transition to an innovative path of development. Therefore it is important to solve the problems associated with the use of renewable energy sources, for which the country has all the necessary prerequisites and competitive advantages. Capacity of RES market volumes involves the implementation of innovations at the level of individuals, organizations, and then, the economic system as a whole. Increased capacity at each of these levels - are discrete elements of the overall process innovation in the domestic fuel and energy. The economic potential of renewable energy in Russia, expressed in tonnes of fuel equivalent, is 30% of the total consumption of energy resources. By types of sources it is distributed as follows (total - 270 Mtce.) [5]: solar energy - 12.5 million wind energy - 10 million Earth heat - 115 million biomass -... 35 million, the energy of small rivers -.. 65 million, the energy of low-grade heat source -. 31.5, million, it will provide an opportunity to address energy, social and environmental problems in the future. According to the Government's plans, by 2010, It was to be implemented commissioning of about 1000 MW electric and 1,200 MW